Effect of divalent cations on the porcine kidney cortex membrane-bound form of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

TitleEffect of divalent cations on the porcine kidney cortex membrane-bound form of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsPascual, Isel, Gómez Hansel, Pons Tirso, Chappé Mae, Vargas Miguel Angel, Valdés Gilberto, Lopéz Alí, Saroyán Angélika, Charli Jean-Louis, and Chávez María de los Ang
JournalInt J Biochem Cell Biol
Date Published2011 Mar
KeywordsAnimals, Binding Sites, Calcium, Cations, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4, Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors, Divalent, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Ions, Kidney Cortex, Kinetics, Membranes, Protein Binding, Protein Structure, Secondary, Sus scrofa, Temperature, Zinc

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is an ectopeptidase with multiple physiological roles including the degradation of incretins, and a target of therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Divalent cations can inhibit its activity, but there has been little effort to understand how they act. The intact membrane-bound form of porcine kidney dipeptidyl peptidase IV was purified by a simple and fast procedure. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide with an average V(max) of 1.397±0.003 μmol min(-1) mL(-1), k(cat) of 145.0±1.2 s(-1), K(M) of 0.138±0.005 mM and k(cat)/K(M) of 1050 mM(-1) s(-1). The enzyme was inhibited by bacitracin, tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, and by the dipeptidyl peptidase IV family inhibitor L-threo-Ile-thiazolidide (K(i) 70 nM). The enzyme was inhibited by the divalent ions Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Zn(2+), following kinetic mechanisms of mixed inhibition, with K(i) values of 2.04×10(-1), 2.28×10(-2), 4.21×10(-4), 8.00×10(-5) and 2.95×10(-5) M, respectively. According to bioinformatic tools, Ca(2+) ions preferentially bound to the β-propeller domain of the porcine enzyme, while Zn(2+) ions to the α-β hydrolase domain; the binding sites were strikingly conserved in the human enzyme and other homologues. The functional characterization indicates that porcine and human homologues have very similar functional properties. Knowledge about the mechanisms of action of divalent cations may facilitate the design of new inhibitors.